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CLASS AVES (Ornithology) color
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11/ 23/ 2010 1 CLASS AVES ( ORNITHOLOGY) reni ambarwati 2010 reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 2 reni ambarwati 2010 Diagnostic Characters Body is covered by feather Wing modification of fore limb Hind limb a pair running walking pair, for running, walking, and swimming reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 3 Link Between Birds and Reptiles Lots of morphological, behavioral and physiological similarity between Reptiles and Birds. Link Between Birds and Reptiles 11/ 23/ 2010 4 The historical evolution of flight debate Two main hypotheses: Ground- up ( CURSORIAL HYPOTHESIS) Trees- down ( ARBOREAL HYPOTHESIS) ) Ground- up Assume biped, cursorial ancestor Has to be bipedal to use wings at all Large legs for running muscle attachment Bones of legs are long Once running: Use feathers for other things Catch insects 11/ 23/ 2010 5 Trees- down Assume semi- bipedal leaping and gliding ancestor claws trees ground Use of to scale trees, then glide to Claws retained in winged appendages Short hand wing ( power), relatively long arm wing ( lift) Large attachment downstroke on sites for humerus but no keeled sternum Flying squirrels? T d Trees- down . maybe. Why evolve to fly? Possible reasons: ( 1) To help escape from predators ( 2) To help catch flying or speedy prey ( 3) To help move from place to place ( leaping or gliding) Migration, etc Nomadism ( 4) To free the hindlegs for use as weapons 11/ 23/ 2010 6 Characteristics Adaptations associated with flight: Skeleton Musculature Physiology etc Adaptations associated with flight: Skeleton pneumatic or hollow pneumatic, bones reduction of the number of bones by loss or fusion. Hollow, air- filled bones the weight lighten of the skeleton 11/ 23/ 2010 7 Adaptations associated with flight: Skeleton f l furculum , or " wishbone," which acts as a strut to brace the wings apart uncinate processes provide additional strength to the rib cage encasing the bird's vital organs and further restrict movement between vertebrae Adaptations associated with flight: Skeleton The strong, keeled sternum of a bird provides a large amount of surface area for attachment of the flight muscles the bumps on the ulna; These bumps help support attachment of pp the secondary flight feathers 11/ 23/ 2010 8 Adaptations associated with flight: FEATHER COMPARE Microstructure of feather of chicken ( Gallus gallus ) g ) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 9 Microstructure of feather of grey heron( Ardea cinerea ) reni ambarwati 2010 Adaptations associated with flight: MUSCLES Large pectoral muscle flapping wing Red muscle rich of mitochondria for long and continue movement 11/ 23/ 2010 10 Bird Modifications Generally the feeding habits go from eating fish and small mammals to eating seeds and insects. Special modifications in morphology allow birds to succeed in their environment. These modifications are very helpful in identifying families species and their families, species, unique behaviors. Bill Adaptations for Feeding The two parts are the upper and lower mandibles. Bill = beak is modified for specific type The bill eating a of food . 11/ 23/ 2010 11 Bill adaptations for A. probing flowers nectar B. drilling into trees for insects C. scooping fish D. catching fish from E. straining food the water F. capturing prey and tearing flesh G. cracking seeds H. capturing worms and insects I. opening seeds from pine cones Foot adaptations A. perching B. wading C. climbing or clinging D. swimming E. preying 11/ 23/ 2010 12 Characteristics of Class Aves 3 birds billion 9000 species vertebrates with feathers, modified for flight and for active metabolism. horny beak, no teeth y , large muscular stomach/ breast feathers large yolked, hard- shelled eggs. The parent bird provides extensive care of the young until it is grown or grown, gets some other bird to look after the young. strong skeleton How to identify a bird ? reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 13 Body Regions reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 14 reni ambarwati 2010 reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 15 CHARACTERs FOR IDENTIFICATION Feather Type of bill Type of wing Type of tail feather Type of foot Vocalization Behavior: nest, pattern of flying E Eggs reni ambarwati 2010 PLUMAGE/ FEATHER The color pattern of the feathers along the body varies. It is often unique for a species. It is usually brighter in males than females with young of both sexes resembling the female. It i ll b i ht t d i th ti is usually brightest during the mating season ( spring and summer for most birds). 11/ 23/ 2010 16 TAIL The tail is used for steering and breaking during flight. It can also be used in courting displays. The shape and color pattern is useful in identification. can be long or The tail short and its shape can be square, rounded, pointed, elongated, forked or notched. Wing Feathers WINGS: used for true flight as well as gliding, balance during hovering and perching, and during courtship. Many have distinctive y white or colored patches. Wings can be long or short, pointed or rounded. 11/ 23/ 2010 17 LEGS and FEET The length and thickness of the legs as well as the shape of the foot are clues to the way the bird lives. S bd dh l d fl h Some birds extend their legs during flight while others hold them under their body. The feet are modified for perching, clinging, walking or swimming swimming . VOCALIZATION Many birds have distinctive calls and songs. They can help to identify birds not visible. Calls are short simple to signal alarm or and distress while songs are more complex and are used for ownership of feeding territory and courtship. In most species only males sing. 11/ 23/ 2010 18 reni ambarwati 2010 reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 19 EGGs Variation on color, pattern, and , p , size reni ambarwati 2010 Nest species p specific reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 20 CLASSIFICATION 2 SUBCLASS: ARCHAEORNITES, e. g : Archaeopterix ( Extinct) NEORNITHES, Superordo : 3 Odontognathae ( extinct) Palaeognathae : walking bird Neognathae : flying bird reni ambarwati 2010 SubClass Neornithes reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 21 SubClass Neornithes Metacarpalia fused 2 of foot Metacarpalia fused, phalanges are long Vertebrae caudalis = 13, dense Strenum with a keel, called arina sterni , Short tail with pygostylus Feather of tail semicirculer Without tooth Wing without claws reni ambarwati 2010 Hesperornis sp reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 22 Super ordo Palaeognathae reni ambarwati 2010 Superordo Palaeognathae Characters: 1. Unable to fly 2 2. Sayap very small or lost 3. Without tooth 4. Coracoid dan scapula bones are very small, 5. Sternum without carina sterni reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 23 SOME IMPORTANT ORDERS: Casuariformes bird Terrestrial Foot, 3 phalanges Wing very small Head with a crown ( An Horny structure= ketopong) Live in the tropical forest Ex : Casuarius casuarius ( Kasuari) reni ambarwati 2010 reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 24 Struthioniformes Terrestrial bird, 2.5 m high, , g, long neck, small head, strong foot, only 2 phalanges ( III& IV) Habitat: desert Fast runner, almost 65 k / h km/ hour Egg biggest egg ( weight + 1,3 kg). Ex: Struthio camelus ( Burung Onta) reni ambarwati 2010 reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 25 Apterygiformes Terrestrial bird, small as big as chicken small wing chicken, wing, Nocturnal, invertebrates eater ( fruit as well) Egg--- 450 gram bird of New Endemic Zealand. Ex: Apteryx australis ( Kiwi) reni ambarwati 2010 COMPARE: Microstructure of chicken feather ( Gallus gallus ) g ) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 26 Microstructure of feather of grey heron ( Ardea cinerea ) reni ambarwati 2010 Skeleton burung unta 1. Sternum, datar tanpa carina sterni, 2. Os coracoideum. 3. Clavicula, 4. Scapula, 5. Humerus, 6. Costae reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 27 reni ambarwati 2010 Pelecaniformes ( F. Pelecanidae, F. Fregatidae) Big water bird Fish eater, bill with gular pouch .. Swimming foot - totipalmata Monogamy, but live in colony Ex: Pelecanus conspicilatus ( Pelikan) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 28 Ordo Sphenisciformes Water bird ( expert in swimming diving) swimming, Modification on feather: scale- like feather, cover the whole body Modification on wing structure ---- enable them to dive and swim Foot with swimming membran, F w wmm gmm , 4 phalanges oriented to anterior. Ex: Apterodytes forstei reni ambarwati 2010 Carina sterni & feather of penguin reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 29 Ciconiiformes ( F. Ardeidae, F. Ciconidae) Group of bird with long foot and long neck Bill: long and pointed Ex : - Ardeola speciosa ( blekok sawah) - Ardea cinerea ( cangak abu) - Bangau tongtong reni ambarwati 2010 Anseriformes ( Familia Anatidae) bird group of Water bird, ---- duck Swimming foot: palmata Bill: straining food from the water Well developved oid grand in the integument. Ex: Cygnus olor ( Angsa), Anas sp ( Itik ) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 30 Falconiformes Group of falcon eagle They falcon, eagle. are raptor bird. Foot type: raptorial strong with sharp claw Bill: strong, sharp and hooked at the distal end. Ex: - Spizaetus bartelsi ( elang jawa) - Spilornis cheela palidus ( elang Bido) reni ambarwati 2010 Falconiformes Merupakan kelompok Spizaetus bartelsi ( JAVAN HAWK EAGLE) Falcon atau elang. Kaki bertipe raptorial, paruh tajam dan kuat. h Contoh : - Spizaetus bartelsi ( elang jawa) - Spilornis cheela palidus ( elang Bido) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 31 Galliformes ( F. Megapodidae Megapodidae, F. , Phasianidae Phasianidae) Group of walking bird p g Bill: short Walking foot --- scratching foot) Feather with aftershaft S ldi fi b Sexual dimorfisme can be observed on morphological characters. Ex: Gallus varius ( ayam hutan); Pavo muticus ( merak hijau) reni ambarwati 2010 Columbiformes ( F. Columbidae, F. Pteroclididae) Bill: short, with cere ( bristle) on the proximal area of bill Contoh : - Columba livia ( Merpati) - Geopelia striata ( Perkutut ) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 32 Psittaciformes ( Familia Psittacidae) Bill: hooked, narrow but strong, sharp. Upper mandible is moveable F tt d t l Foot type: zygodactyla Voice: strong Habitat: tropical rain forest Ex: Cacatua galerita ( kakatua kuning) jambul reni ambarwati 2010 Strigiformes ( Familia Strigidae) Big and rounded head Big eyes and front oriented ---- binocular vision Apparatus auditorius weel develop Having auricle- like structure: arrangement of face feather Bill: short, hooked zygodactyla with Foot: zygodactyla, sharp claw Nocturnal dan predator, o alba ( burung hantu) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 33 Apodiformes swifts, tree swifts, and hummingbirds ( l l l ) walet, layang- layang) their legs are small and have limited function aside from perching l hh long wings with short, stout humerus bones Contoh : - Collocalia esculenta ( walet i) sapi) reni ambarwati 2010 Coraciiformes ( Familia Alcedinidae, F. Bucerotidae ) Bill bi d t Bill: big and strong Foot: short, proximal of III& IV phalanges are fused Bill Bi d l Bill: Big and long Ex: - Halcyon chloris ( Raja Udang) - Buceros rhinoceros ( Rangkong) reni ambarwati 2010 11/ 23/ 2010 34 Passeriformes ( Burung- burung penyanyi) Group of singing and perching bird Foot: passerine type The biggest order, consisted f b d 69 f il d of 4 suborder, family and + 5100 species. Ex: - Pycnonotus ( Kutilang, terucuk) - Gracula religiosa ( Beo) reni ambarwati 2010 reni ambarwati 2010