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CYANOHYTA OR CYANOCLORONTA Name and classification (1) * It is known as blue algae * Or Cyanophyta * Some of them belong to Cyanophyceae and others are Schizophyceae * Thre are 150 genera with 1500 species that have been named Name and classification (2) Traditonally blue alga is classified in algae family Observation proves that electron microscope and biochemistry show that blue algae have close relationships with bacteria Blue algae MONERA Bacteria Habitat * Habitat : cosmopolitan, aquatic and terrestrial * They live on bare and moist soil. It looks like mucilage. * They are also found on damp stone, inanimate object, and plant Life Form (1) * Aquatic species in fresh water and sea water * Species of aquatic life such as plankton, together with algae and plantonic animals. * Endophytes species are found in the plant body. Example: Nostoc in Marchantia (Blasia & Anthoceros); Anabaena in nail-spiking (Azolla) and root cycas Life Form (2) * Epiphytic species, other algae or other water plants, for example Calotrix & Chamaesiphon. * Species that have symbiotic with fungi Lichenes * Photoautotroph can grow in the culture media containing only symbiotic anorganic Characteristic * Photosynthetic pigments: C-fikosianin, C-fikoeretrin, chlorophyll a, myxoxantin, myxoxantofil, carotenoids * They have no flagella * Food reserves: cyanophycean granular glycogen granules * Structure of cells: prokaryotic * Cell walls: mukopeptida * Gamet meeting never takes place Cell Structure(1) * Mucilage sheath: a slimy layer with varied thickness is one of the characteristics of the blue algae * There are three layers on the Cell walls : Outer layer (cortex) Middle layer Inner layer is hard / stiff Cell structure (2) Analysis on cell wall peptidoglycan or mukopeptida showed : > 8 Amino acid > Muramic acid > Diaminopimelic acid > Glucosamine Cell Structure(3) 3. Thylakoid > Containing a flat chlorophyll > Often lies in the peripheral cells 4. Fikobilisom: small structures that contain additional pigments arranged parallelly on thylakoid surface Additional pigment is composed of fikosianin fikobilin (blue) and fikoeritrin (red) Cell Structure (4) 5. Nucleus material (DNA) > Not restricted from the cytoplasm o / membrane > Often lies spreading like nets > They have no Nucleoli 6. Endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and have no golgi Cell Structure(5) 7. Granule : > Photosynthesis excess is stored as tiny granules called flour cyanophycean > Flour cyanophycean is a glycogen > Other kinds of granules contained in cells Cell Structure(6) 8. Gas vacuole: A number of plantonic species contain gas vacuoles in the cell edge. Usually it appears slightly in red color Body Shape * Unicellular Unicellular & colony * Colony are considered primitive Filaments Filaments are derived from the unicellular 1. Unicellular Single cell, live freely or attached Example : Chroococcus, Gleocapsa, & Chamaesiphon * Chroococcus lives together with other algae on the sediment on the bottom of the pond. * Chroococcus & Gleocapsa found on damp rocks, walls, potted plants. * Often difficult to find Chroococcus & Gleocapsa in the form of unicellular because there is a tendency of cell division and stem cell daughter cells joined. * Colored Gleocapsa sheath & generally thicker than Chroococcus. * Incipient colonies formed in Gleocapsa is more complex than Chroococcus. * Gleocapsa colonies consist of more numerous individuals and each cell has its own sheath * Chamaesiphon epiphytic on other algae and aquatic plants. * Chamaesiphon is attached to other plants on holdfast. * Cell division into two daughter cells does not happen on Chamaesiphon. * Reproduction happens through exsospore formation. Exsospore merges one another when they attach to the substrate and subsequently germinate into a new individual. 2. Colony o Number of cells growing together in the same envelope. Sheath is generated through the secretion from each cell example : Microcystis, Polycistis, & Merismopedia * There are varied Microcystis colony forms * Merismopedia has colonies flat or sheet shaped * Microcystis, individual small round cells and usually contain pseudovacuole * Merismopedia ellipse that is composed of individual cells paralell order form colonies due to cell division with two directions * Reproduction: the fragmentation of the colony and then cell division increase the size of the colony 3. Filamen Rows of cells forming a branched chain or not resulted from cleavage in one direction Trichome example : Oscillatoria, Lyngbia, Nostoc, Anabaena, Ruvularia,Gloeotrichia a. Oscillatoria & Lyngbya * Trichome: a row of cells * Filaments: trichome & slime sheath. * Habitat: aquatic, moist soil. * The composition of the body: the cell has a broad prepotent longer (more broadly) or vice versa. * Species are usually distinguished from the apical cell (edge) that has a different shape from the vegetative cells. In water medium, trichome Oscillatoria move oscillatory (like a pendulum) rotating & back and forth along the axis of his body. * Lyngbya is different from Oscillatoria and it is surrounded by sheathing that is clearly evident and strong. * Reproduction: hormogonium fragmentation is caused by the formation of dead cells (1 or more) on trichom. Broken strands of cells called hormogonium. b. Anabaena & Nostoc * Anabaena as Planktonic that form the coating on aquatic vegetation or scattered in freshwater or sea water. * Nostoc appears as a jelly, including species of aquatic and terrestrial, or rocks. Nostoc filaments grouped together in the matrix who are macroscopic visible masses, round or flat. * Reproduction : 1. Heterocyct 2. Akinete c. Rivularia * Filaments with pseudo branch Part and the tip consists of cells arranged like hair narrow in length Basal vegetative cells turn into heterocyct d. Gloeotrichia * Gloeotrichia filaments are similar to Rivularia * Each of the filaments has a basal heterocyct. * There is akinet near heterocyst. In Rivularia, it doesn't exist, akinet germinates into new trichome in certain circumstances Asexual Reproduction * Binary division (Amitosis) Without the chromosomes formation. Formed septum (partition room) from the outer limit of two parts resulting in the same cell. Unicellular. 2. Akinet & heterosis a. Akinete Thicked-wall akinete contains a lot of food reserves ---> photosynthesis (-) Location: * spread in filament. * sometimes side by side with heterosist. * Groups. It is formed if the environment is not suitable and germinate if its conditions are suitable Age 70 years. Thylakoid is arranged like vegetative cells b. Heterocyst * Heterocyct is like thicked-wall vegetative cells and has clear protoplasts * Unlike with dead cell * Function: Reproduction Because it contains of enzymes nitrogen assimilation nitragenase Fixation N2 NH3 Protein NH3 is transmited into cells adjacent cell for protein synthesis. In anaerobic conditions, it can not penetrate the cell wall (oxygen) O2. Thylakoid is formed by pattern of concentric heterocyst & reticulate . 3. Fragmentasi Filaments hormogonium is a row of cells on the filaments that are confined by dead cell Colony split into multiple colonies 4. Endospore & Exospore * Endospore: protoplasts in cells are repeatedly divide & produce shape structures * Exospore: endospore cut of at the end / tip of the protoplast