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algahijau1 inter
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Green Algae CHLOROPHYCOPHYTA Body organization of algae : unicellular, colony, filament, tubular membrane (tubular / rod) or coenocytic ALGAE CLASSIFICATION : Chlorophycophyta, Charophyta, Euglenophycophyta, Phaeophyco-phyta, Chrysophycophyta, Rhodophycophyta. The difference??? BASIC TYPES OF algae LIFE CYCLE : H, h type (Haplobiontic, haploid) daugther cells(n) daugther colony(n) Aseks fragmentation (n) Algae (n) zoospores (n) Sexs zoospores (n) daughter cells (n) Gamet (n) + zygote(2n) + meiosis Juvenil (n) 2. H, d type (Haplobiontic, diploid) zoospores (2n) asexual Algae (2n) meiosis gamet (n) + Sexual zygote (2n) gamet (n) - 3. D, h + d type parthenogenesis algae (n) gamet meiosis Algae (2n) zoospore (n) zygote algae (n) gamet parthenogenesis Reproduction Asexual/vegetatif likes zoospore, aplanospora, akinete, amilyllum stars Sexual a. Isogamy anisogamy b. Heterogamy Oogamy c. Aplanogamy d. Autogamy CHLOROPHYTA HABITAT * Pool, water calm (filamentous, colonial, unicellular) * sewage containing N (usually Volvox) * lakes, swamps (as plankton) * wet stone, moist wood (one-celled) * soil with a depth of 50 cm / more * parasitic on higher plants * Symbiotic relathionship with Hydra and animals such as Chlorella, symbiosis with fungi (Lichens) * aquatic in various range of salinity (freshwater, brackish water, and sea water) some examples that live in sea water: a. intertidal area: Enteromorpha b. sub-littoral areas. Cell Structure * Dominant pigment is chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in chloroplast. Chloroplast shapes are also varied in size, such as bowl shapes, stars, H, etc.. * Pyrenoid contained in the chloroplast. whether its function? * Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, ER. * Nucleus: nucleus membrane has two layers with one or> nucleoli. * Cell walls: cellulose containing the Foreign coated slime. In Pedistrum contains little silicon, on which were only slightly tubular type cellulose. * Large central vacuoles and contractile vacuole * Equal flagella Body Organization structure Unicellular motile & nonmotile Colony Membrane Filaments Tubes & coenocytic Unicellular Move Example. : Chlamydomonas (two flagella), Casteria (four flagella) Chlamydomonas Habitat: scattered on aquatic habitats, soil, air cleaner Body structure: Length: no more than 25 m Body cells are surrounded by walls with two flagella protruding on bag. Anterior Having a single chloroplast, the shape of a case of kettles, bowls, H, or rounded. Pyrenoid 1 < Stigma serves as a primitive lens, the light receiver Core: 1, 2, < Contractile vacuole is located adjacent to the anterior polar Reproduction: Asexual form zoospores, Sexual: isogamy Asexual: Chlamydomonas 's flagell degenerate Mitotic nucleus divides into two or>, each cytoplasm forms 2 -> tillers in vegetatif cells. Each child grows cells, vegetatif cells broken wall spreading out 2a. Unicellular does not move; not form zoospores Chlorella (S.C.P) Habitat: spread in freshwater, salt water & soil Cell structure: > Bowl-shaped chloroplast, present or absent pyrenoid > The central cytoplasm > Small nucleus > Reproduction: sexual is not found Asexual: Tue divide to form 4-8 cell autospora 2b. Unicellular does not move; form zoospores Chlorococcum Habitat: Freshwater & land Chloroplast resembles notched ball with inside pyrenoid Asexual reproduction: zoospores Sexual: isogamy Asexual reproduction Vegetative cells split and formed a number of zoospores Cells that do not move that produce zoospores called zoosporangium Zoospores formed from vegetative cells will exit. After moving through the period, missing flagella and grow into new vegetative cells Length of movement depends on environmental factors: light intensity, temperature, composition and concentration of culture medium. Movements because fototaxis+ In certain circumstances, zoospores were not released from stem cells, but develops in the cells and directly into vegetative cells, the ones which is nonmotile called aplanospore. Aplanospore pushed against the wall. Stem cells and escape, grow into new plants. What is the characteristics of blue algae? What is the characteristics of green algae? What are differences between Chlorococcum & Chlorella? Colony Example: Pandorina, Volvox Pandorina Adult colonies totaling 16 cells, solid, form ovoids (Oval) Anterior cell is the flat part, narrows posteriorly Stigma is in the anterior Two contractile vacuoles Two flagella Nucleus 1 After reaching the maximum size of the colony will be sunk in the pond and establish autocolony Volvox As the colonies move, enlarged cells located diposterior ----- gonidium? Each gonidium has the ability to form colonies divide children. Formation anterozoid Gonidium divide a few times --- 512 cells formed anterozoid Formation Ovum Gonidium changes its function as the egg Fertilization Irrespective of sperm to swim toward the ovum Plasmogamy kariogamy zygote Asexual Reproduction Gonidium inversion split several times, so that part is located within the anterior and children formed senobium Senobium: the number of colonies. Particular cell Scenedesmus * Habitat: freshwater, land * The colony consists of four cells <, in some species. Tues terminal spines have a chest notching * Chloroplasts on the edge with a pyrenoid * Asexual reproduction : Autocolony Sexual : Isogamy What are the difference between Volvox & Pandorina? What is a colony? filaments Unbranched Branch unbranched Ulotrix * Habitat: rock or object inherent in PD drowning stream & pond, some species living in sea water * Cell structure: Holdfast cell modification bottom fronds become a tool Chloroplast: belt shape Pirenoid 1 < Nucleus : 1 * Reproduction Asexual: zoospores & aplanospora Sexual: isogamy is heterotalus Oedogonium Reproduction : 1. Asexual : fragmentation zoospore 2. Sexual : oogamy Ovum is produced from growing gametangium called oogonium Sperm is produced by anteridium (box sel , short, couple) Sexual reproduction can be macandrous or nannandrous Macandrous species: species whose which sperm is produced in a normal-sized filaments. They can be homotalus or heterotalus Nannandrous species: species whose sperms are produced in the filaments dwarf / abnormal Create schematic of life cycle in Oedogonium !!! Cladophora Cell Structure: Astigmatism: a thick cell wall and layered; lap. in: cellulose; lap. middle: pectin; wipes out: resembling chitin. Central vacuole??? Chloroplast??? Pirenoid??? Spirogyra Reproduction : Asexual : fragmentation Sexual : conjugation Two filaments adjacent to each other, which will experience reproductive cells form a longitudinal ridge and met. The walls of the terminal bulge which met decays, reeds formed conjugates. One protoplast cells will flow into other cells, protoplasts which flows are considered male gamete. After fertilization of a zygote is formed. Meiotic divisions occur at the zygote formed 4 daughter cells that grow only one other third filament decays. Conjugation: Conjugation skalariform Lateral conjugation Desmid Membrane Ulva Caulerpa Coenocytic and Tubular shape Acetabularia develops from a zygote Two poles: rhizoid pole and polar axis upright. Zygote nucleus is called the primary core stays at the bottom to form fertile circle (hat). Primary nucleus enlarged to 20 x of size. Initially then split to form the core secondary mitosis that spreads throughout the body. Cysts in the hat?